It was founded with a royal decree in 1928, that joined together Borzago, Fisto and Mortaso in one municipality called “Spiazzo”, toponym that indicated the center of the three communities: a wide square in front of the church of San Vigilio, ancient place of religious and civil me- eting. From the south, the first village is Borzago, characterized by the big square with a washboard and where there is the frescoed “Cort da Togno”, base of the royal military captaincy district of Tione during the first world war. On the east bank of Sarca river there is Fisto. The old village is located close to the mountain and has big houses, most of which have religious frescoes that contribute to keep the atmosphere of the ancient village alive. In the past Fisto formed a unique community with the neighboring hamlet of Ches. Northwards there is the village of Mortaso: its name seems linked to the legend of the martyrdom of San Vigilio, lapidated in these places.The heart of the village is made of houses with wooden balconies and sacred images on the walls.
CULTURAL POINTS OF INTEREST
1 First World War museum It is placed inside the Spiazzo old primary school, and it has been realized thanks to the efforts of the historical and cultural association of the First World War in Adamello (1915-1918). During the war, a lot of material and equipment was taken to the high altitude of the Adamello-Pre- sanella group and of the Ortles-Cevedale with a great effort, in order to assure the soldiers survival from snow and ice at 3000 mt.
When the war ended, the people of the valley went up to the mountains to take all the stuff that could be used or sold again. From this reseach a very rich collection of war finds was found, which now are in the present museum (war objects and more than 3000 original photos of the people and the places of that time).
2 San Vigilio church It is set in the place where, according to tradition, the St. Vigilio martyrdom took place and where the pagan temple dedicated to Saturno rose before. In 1541 the present church was built, with the old chapels.
Near the church, there is the old bell tower and there are several frescos on the facade and inside, which represent the St. Vigilio martyrdom, the Jesus baptism, the Gabriele archangel with the Annunciation lily and other saints. Inside there is only a nave with three chapels on each side and a majestic vault. Prestigious marbles are used and there are many paintings, as the one above the altar dedicated to the Madonna of the Snow, patron of Mortaso.
3 St. Antonio church It is placed in the alluvial plain of the Sarca river, and it has a cemetery and a granite bell tower. The present building, gothic on a Romanesque structure, dates back to the rebuilding of the fifteenth century, even though the original church is of the ninth century. Inside there is a nave, a presbytery, several frescos on the walls realized by Dioniso Baschenis and his partner Cristoforo I in the end of the fifteenth century. Outside, on the main facade there is the figure of San Cristoforo and above the portal there are represented the Annunciation, St. Antonio Abate, the Madonna with Child, the Trinity, St. Giorgio and a procession.
On the south-east wall there are thirty paintings with captions of St. Antonio Abate life. Inside there is the fresco of the Last Supper, a big crucifixion, the Deposition and the downhill to the Limbo.
4 Cort da Togno Inner couryard that reveals the original painting of the local artirst Viglio Pellizzari Togno; it is the only attestation of a popular art realized with satire aims. Many paintings on the walls have captions with news and curiosities. During the First World War, the courtyard was the place of the Tione royal military captaincy.
5 “Planks bearers” mosaic During the First World War many women of the valley took the material for the building of the military shacks and the provisions to the Adamello front. The women were paid three crowns a day and two loaves of bread in the weekend, divided in 13 groups made up by 50-60 people each one. The way to the glacier lasted 2-3 hours and people made it many times a day, with every weather conditions. Thanks to the material brought by women, ten shacks, a little church and a funicular to Pelugo were built. The mosaic, commissioned by Dante Ongari, decorates one side of the Gio capital.
6 Fisto village The old village rises near the mountain and has huge houses decorated with frescoed walls. There are many rustic houses with wide wooden superstructures propped by stone columns. In “Nuova” square there are the old houses of “Casere” and “Casarot”: this last one was the place where the primary schools and a farm were based in the half of the eighteenth century. Today there is still the classroom with some pieces of furniture of that time. The old square is surrounded by houses with wide attics and balconies and in the center there is a granite fountain dating back to 1841.
7 War Memorial Leaving Fisto, along the road to Bocenago, there was an iron crucifix on a granite pedestal; at the beginning of the twentieeth century this cross, place of rural worship, was taken away and the pedestal was changed into the present War Memorial.
8 Monument in memory of Ches flood It is dedicated to the flood of 4th November 1966. After some rainy days and a rainy autumn as well, in the afternoon of that day a strange sound, like a waterfall, warned the people of Ches: it was the Rè river, that from a small stream transformed itself into a rushing river. A big landslide came down the village from 1050 mt of altitude, destroying many houses. After some hydrogeological studies, the old village was destroyed and rebuilt in the present place.
9 The “Calchera” It was an old furnace used for making lime. It was made by heat-proof squared stones and built near a road to make easy the transport of the chalky stones and of the timber. When the chalky stones reaches the temperature of 800-1000 degrees, it usually releases carbon dioxide and transforms itself in quicklime. The quicklime is then processed with water to create a doughy compound.
10 Mortaso “rosta” (bank) The “Vagugn” river, which is dry for the most part of the year, was a threat for Mortaso people in the last centuries. So they made a defense work but, during the catastrophic flood in September 1882, Mortaso was one of he most damaged villages in Val Rendena. A big landslide went down the valley, sweeping away woods, fields and stones, destroying the road and changing the river bed. The day after that flood, a new strong bank was built to defend the village: the people of Mortaso had to ask for great loans, which could be wiped out only many years later in 1904, when they sold some lands in Val Genova (Bedole, Lobbia, Mandrone, Mattaròt) to the people of Strembo.
11 Santa Felicita fresco It decorates the wall of a house in “Piazza Vecchia” square and represents the martyrdom of Santa Felicita.
12 Gìo capital It is dedicated to the Madonna of the Rosary, realized in the end of the eighteenth century and restored in 1932. You can reach it through a long staircase, and it has a sacred mosaic tryptich and a wide porch open to the valley.
13 Dry stone walls The dry stone walls that delimited the mule tracks and that formed the terraced grounds were basically of two types: built with local raw stones or built with big semi- carved or carved stones. The terraced grounds are used in agriculture to make the steep fields farmable; they have been made in many hill and mountain areas since the sixteen century.
14 Via nova and via crucis historic mule track
NATURAL POINTS OF INTEREST
15 Val Borzago and Bedù river The valley stretches to the eastern mountainsides of Carè Alto, after crossing a thick conifer wood; then it opens to pastures at high altitude with several typical alpine huts used for housing or stabling. Beyond the pastures, from Plan della Sega you can take the path towards the Carè Alto refuge and the glacier. The valley is crossed by the Bedù river, that originates from the glaciers of Carè Alto and Niscli and flows into the Sarca river.
Along this river, on 27th of 1900 the “Officina Elettrica Industriale” (power society) of the middle and low Rendena was built. It had a minimum power of 225 horsepower engine supplying 14 villages of the valley, and it was under the patronage of St. Vigilio. In 1992 it included the Ragoli power society, born the year before.
Didactic vegetable garden It is a real vegetable garden in St. Vigilio square, near the church, with different types of fruits and vegetables typical of the valley. Everybody, in return for help and the ground unkeep and irrigation, could enter in and pick the ripe products; children like particularly this project, watching the growth of plants with great curiosity.
You can find Spiazzo "Family route" map at Val Rendena town halls, Pro Loco tourist offices and Tourist Board offices